Things Fall Apart

Patriarchy and Masculinity in “Things Fall Apart”

Chinua Achebe’s novel “Things Fall Apart” is a thought-provoking masterpiece that explores various themes, including the role of patriarchy and masculinity in Igbo society. Set in pre-colonial Nigeria, the novel presents a complex portrayal of these concepts and challenges readers to question long-held assumptions about gender and power. In this blog post, we will delve into the intertwined themes of patriarchy and masculinity in “Things Fall Apart,” examining their impact on the characters and society portrayed in the book.

The Patriarchal Structure of Igbo Society

At the heart of “Things Fall Apart” lies a deeply patriarchal society. In the Igbo culture, men hold the reins of power, while women are relegated to subservient roles. The title itself suggests the fragile nature of masculinity when faced with cultural upheaval. Okonkwo, the novel’s protagonist, embodies the stereotypical ideal of masculinity in Igbo society – strong, dominant, and fiercely independent. However, his adherence to these cultural norms becomes his tragic flaw, ultimately leading to his downfall.

The Pressure to Conform to Masculine Ideals

From a young age, Okonkwo is groomed to embrace stereotypical masculine traits. He is taught that strength and aggression are assets, and any sign of weakness is a blemish on his honor. This societal pressure pushes Okonkwo to adopt an overly macho persona, shunning any form of vulnerability or tenderness. As a result, his relationships become strained, and he struggles to maintain genuine connections with his wives and children.

The Suppression of Femininity

With patriarchy comes the suppression of femininity, which is evident throughout “Things Fall Apart.” Women are confined to domestic roles, expected to bear children, cook, and maintain the household. They are often silenced and treated as property, with no agency when it comes to decision-making. This suppression of femininity perpetuates an imbalance of power and prevents the growth and progress of Igbo society.

Exciting Topic: Symbolism in Things Fall Apart

The Role of Women in Challenging the Patriarchy

While “Things Fall Apart” primarily focuses on masculinity, it also highlights the resilience and strength of women in challenging the patriarchal norms. Characters like Ezinma and Ekwefi defy societal expectations, displaying intelligence, courage, and independence. Their actions disrupt the established order and provide glimpses of a more equitable society.

The Conflict Between Traditional and Colonial Masculinities

The arrival of European colonialism in “Things Fall Apart” introduces a clash between traditional Igbo masculinity and the ideals imported by the colonizers. The white man’s presence challenges the authority of the Igbo men, creating a crisis of identity and purpose. Some characters, like Okonkwo, view the colonial influence as emasculating and threatening, further driving them to cling onto traditional masculine values.

Colonialism as a Catalyst for Change

Although the introduction of colonialism disrupts Igbo society, it also offers an opportunity for reevaluating and redefining gender roles. The colonizers bring with them a different set of masculine ideals that could potentially subvert the existing patriarchal structure. Some Igbo men, like Nwoye, recognize the limitations of their traditional masculinity and find solace in the new perspectives presented by the colonial influences.

The Fallout of Patriarchy and Masculinity

Throughout the novel, we witness the devastating consequences of a society built on patriarchy and strict adherence to masculine norms. The suppression of emotions leads to an inability to cope with change, resulting in violence and oppressive behavior. Okonkwo’s relentless pursuit of masculinity isolates him from his loved ones, ultimately leading to his tragic downfall. This serves as a cautionary tale, underscoring the destructive nature of unchecked patriarchy.


“Things Fall Apart” presents a complex tapestry of patriarchy and masculinity in pre-colonial Igbo society. Achebe invites us to critically examine these themes, challenging our preconceived notions of power and gender roles. The novel’s exploration of the consequences of rigid masculinity serves as a reminder of the importance of inclusivity and empathy in shaping a more equitable society. If we are to avoid the downfall portrayed in “Things Fall Apart,” we must recognize the limitations of patriarchal systems and work towards embracing diverse expressions of gender and identity.

With its timeless themes and thought-provoking narrative, “Things Fall Apart” continues to resonate with readers around the world. Achebe’s masterful storytelling forces us to confront uncomfortable truths about power, privilege, and the often-damaging effects of patriarchal systems. By engaging with this novel and reflecting on its messages, we can contribute to the ongoing dialogue on gender equality and challenge the societal norms that hold us back.


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